Acne is a common skin condition that presents with open or closed comedones and pimples on the face, neck, chest, back and shoulders. It is more prevalent among adolescents due to excess oil production. Available medication aims to control acne by reducing oil production, prevent scarring of the skin or making scars less profound.
Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that irreversibly affects the cognitive functions. It is a progressive disorder that usually appears in the mid-sixties. It is considered the most common type of dementia and can be initially managed pharmacologically. The most common drugs are donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease is a progressive condition that affects the nervous system. It usually presents with weakness in the limbs, later spreading to the rest of the body. The speech, gait and cognitive performance will also get affected in time. Breathing and eating problems are some of the most severe complications. Treatment slows down the progression of the damage.
Asthma is a disorder of the airways. It is characterised by alveolar hyper-reactivity and mucus hyper-secretion. As a result, the airways become narrow. Narrow airways result in breathing difficulties, wheezing and coughing. These phenomena together with breathlessness are the cardinal symptoms of asthma. As a condition, it can be triggered by a variety of situations. Asthma exacerbations are prevented and treated with inhalatory medication.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a brain disorder characterised by three patterns of behavior; inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although it is common to meet these behaviors in young children, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder amplifies them. As a result, children or young adults suffering from it may experience social and integrational difficulties in school, university or job.
Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that affects an individual’s behavioral and communication skills. It can present at any age but it most commonly appears in the first two years of life. Communication skills are poor, resulting in restricted and repetitive behavioral patterns. Medication will control symptoms and psychotherapy will socially integrate the individual.
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder with potentially psychotic features. Patients with bipolar disorder oscillate between manic and depressive episodes. They experience extreme mood swings accompanied by euphoria or sadness, in accordance to the current episode. These mood swings episodes occur after big intervals of time and can be managed with mood stabilizers and psychotherapy.
Brain tumor is a benign or malignant condition that is characterised by abnormal collection of brain cells in the brain. According to its type, it can be invasive or non-invasive. It can be primary or secondary, the latter being usually malignant. However, even benign tumors can be dangerous by compressing several brain structures.
Breast cancer is the second most prevalent form of cancer in women, after skin cancer. It refers to the cancer formed in the cells of the breast and it can have a very atypical presentation. A lump in the breast, a change of the size of the breast or any unusual phenomena in that area may indicate breast cancer. Due to its high prevalence in women, frequent self-examination is suggested and encouraged.
Cataract is an eye condition leading to clouding of the eye’s lenses. They manifest slowly, being asymptomatic in early stages but severely affecting vision later on. Hopefully, it is a curable condition that can be managed with various interventions, especially in the beginning. When it reaches advanced stages, it can be corrected with surgery.
Celiac disease or gluten intolerance affects the function of the small intestine. It can appear in many forms, including active, latent or silent. Each form will cause different symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain, irritability or even depressed mood. Irritability and depressed mood will often be the only signs in children. Treatment consists in respecting a gluten free diet.
Cerebral palsy describes a spectrum of conditions that result in irreversible motor disturbances. It is usually caused by birth defects that may occur prenatally or perinatally. Muscle tone can vary and present as stiffness or flopiness. Spasticity, rigidity and ataxia may be present as well.Symptoms may also include learning difficulties and involuntary movements.
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cervix and results in abnormal cervical cells growth. Most cervical cancers are associated with several strains of human papilloma virus, which is mostly acquired sexually. Screening tests such as Pap test, can identify this type of cancer in early stages. Vaccination is also a form of prevention.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome is a condition that bears great amounts of disability. It affects people for a period of time that may range from months to years and is characterized by extreme post-exertional malaise. People affected by it suffer from extreme fatigue but may look completely healthy. It is of unknown cause and difficult to diagnose. There is no definitive treatment but some cases can be managed effectively.
Colon cancer is a type of intestinal cancer that manifests itself in the large intestine. According to its location and size it can cause multiple symptoms including changes in bowel habits, blood in the stools, abdominal bloating and discomfort and general constitutional symptoms such as fatigue or weight loss. Treatment is decided after staging and location establishment.
Concussion or traumatic brain injury is one of the mildest forms of brain injury. If there is not some visible sign of concussion such as a bruise or cut, diagnosis can be established in the presence of general symptoms. Confusion, dizziness, visual disturbances or sensitivity to light and noise may be some of the cardinal symptoms of concussion.
Coronary artery disease refers to the damage of the arteries supplying the myocardium. Inflammation together with plaque formation in the lumen of the arteries are the two entities that are most commonly responsible for the development of the disease. If left untreated it can progress to angina, myocardial infarction or dyspnea. Lifestyle interventions and exercise are the cornerstone of preventing coronary artery disease.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that causes abdominal pain and abnormal intestinal transit. Patients may experience severe diarrhea with malnutrition, fatigue and signs of dehydration. Although Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the digestive tract, it can present with extra-intestinal manifestations as well. Mouth ulcers can occasionally be the early signs of Crohn’s disease.
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that results in increased mucus production, which is thick and sticky. It primarily affects the digestive and respiratory systems and nowadays it can be easily diagnosed. Screening is performed in most countries to detect the mutated gene responsible for the disease. If present, management consists in prevention of lung infections and management of the complications.
Diabetes type 1 is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from complete lack of endogenous insulin. What causes lack of endogenous insulin is the auto-digestion of the beta-cells of the pancreas. As a result, very high levels of blood sugar develop leading to serious metabolic complications. Once developed, diabetes type 1 requires lifelong treatment with exogenous insulin, together with lifestyle modifications.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 results from abnormally high blood glucose levels, leading to insulin resistance. It is a metabolic disorder that usually presents with polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. In severely high blood glucose levels, individuals might be diagnosed with hyperosmolar syndrome, a possibly lethal condition. Diabetes type 2 is managed with lifestyle changes, medication and insulin. if necessary.
Dyslexia or reading disorder is a condition characterized by normal intelligence but difficulties with reading. It is usually diagnosed in children, in the first classes of primary school and when a child learns how to read. Dyslexia is managed with various educational approaches that should be started early to reach the best result.
Eating disorders are a spectrum of disorders characterised by abnormal eating habits, either regarding quality or quantity. Some examples of eating disorders include binge eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and pica. Counseling together with an individualised diet and a proper exercise plan can manage eating disorders and lead to complete remission.
Eczema is a skin condition presenting with red, itchy and inflamed patches. The skin patches are rough and cracked and may occasionally get complicated with blisters formation. Eczema can be caused by certain triggers found in food or in the environment. It is not contagious and can be effectively managed with pharmacological treatment.
Emphysema is a lung condition and the result of damage in the alveoli. The hallmark of emphysema is dyspnea due to decreased lugg surface and therefore lower oxygen exchange capacity. Most commonly, emphysema coexists with chronic bronchitis in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking is the most important risk factor for both.
Endometriosis is a painful disorder that results from abnormal uterine tissue growth outside the uterus. Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, menorrhagia and infertility might be some of the symptoms endometriosis presents with. Treatment can alleviate the pain either with hormonal therapy or pain relieving medication. However, surgical interventions are more definitive.
Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system that leads to unprovoked seizures or unusual behavior. Epilepsy is the result of abnormal brain activity. Having a seizure doesn’t mean you have epilepsy. You need to have at least two episodes of seizures to be diagnosed with epilepsy. Some people experience epilepsy with involuntary muscle contractions while others with loss of awareness or unusual sensations. Medical or surgical treatment can control or eliminate epileptic seizures.
Erectile dysfunction is a disorder that affects men and results in the inability to get or maintain an erection. Causes may include ceart disease, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Sildenafil, known as Viagra, and Tadalafil are common oral drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction.
Fibromyalgia is a disorder mainly characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and cognitive disturbances regarding the capacity to concentrate and memorize. It is unknown what causes fibromyalgia but it seems to be strongly correlated to stress, psychological or somatic. It is most commonly diagnosed in women and it often coexists with other conditions. Treatment is mainly symptomatic.
Food allergy is an immune response of our body upon ingestion of a certain food that triggers the immune system. Some foods are considered more allergenic than others. Examples of such foods are nuts, fish or seafood and certain fruits. A food allergy can potentially lead to severe allergic reactions including allergic shock.
Gastritis is a spectrum of diseases that share as a common characteristic the inflammation of the gastric mucosa, found in the stomach. A burning sensation or pain together with nausea and vomiting may be the only symptoms. Characteristic is the feeling of fullness after eating. One of the most common causes of gastritis is infection with H. Pylori.
Gastroparesis slows down the motility of the stomach. Slowed gastric emptying due to gastroparesis may be accompanied by certain symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Impaired blood glucose metabolism can also manifest because of abnormal digestion procedure. Diet modifications along with certain drugs can offer some relief.
Generalized anxiety disorder is a type of anxiety disorders characterized by unjustified worrying. Somatic symptoms usually include muscle tension, fatigue and irritability. As a condition, it often coexists with other anxiety or mood disorders. Psychotherapy and medication are the two therapeutic interventions most commonly practised to treat generalized anxiety disorder.
Glaucoma is a disease that affects the eye, and more specifically the optic nerve. It is the result of increased intraocular pressure due to fluid accumulation. The two main types of glaucoma are primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. Blurry vision, eye pain and headache are only some of the typical symptoms.
Glioblastoma or glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of brain cancer. They are malignant and highly invasive and may present with headache, nausea, altered cognitive functions and personality changes. It is a condition that is difficult to treat and the main therapy is surgical. Surgery aims to remove as much of the tumor as possible, reserving normal brain tissue.
Hearing loss or presbycusis is a common progressive condition that can be of three types; conductive, sensorineural or mixed. It is usually an irreversible condition but can be easily managed with proper hearing aids. The most important risk factors are aging and chronic exposure to loud noise. Reversible causes of hearing loss are those of neurological etiology or excessive earwax.
Heart attack (myocardial infarction) most commonly results from the sudden occlusion of a coronary artery. As a result, blood flow to the myocardium is interrupted and oxygen is no longer delivered. The cardinal symptom is intense, crushing pain in the middle of the chest or just below the rib cage and may radiate towards the left arm, the neck or jaw. The treatment goal is to restore the blood flow to the myocardium.
Heart failure is the impaired pumping function of the heart muscle, most commonly due to coronary artery disease of hypertension. Heart failure can be systolic or diastolic and acute of chronic. It may present with dyspnea, fatigue, low tolerance to exercise and edema of the lower limbs. Other symptoms may be present as well. Treatment plan depends on the heart failure grade, after classification.
Heart transplant is a surgical procedure that is relevant to those with congenital heart diseases. It involves the donation of the heart from a donor to a recipient, the donor being usually deceased. Immunosuppressants are usually administered after the surgery, during the period in which doctors wait to see whether the recipient will accept the graft or not.
Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is a sexual transmitted disease but can also be transmitted through blood. If chronic, it can lead to liver cirrhosis, a serious and pre-cancerous liver condition. However, nowadays it is considered a potentially curable disease, managed with daily oral pharmacological treatment taken for several months.
Hypertension is a very common condition of the blood vessels that gradually results in clinical and subclinical organ damage. It can be symptomatic or asymptomatic, damaging your blood vessels and heart in both situations. Most people with hypertension don’t experience any specific symptoms while others may complain of headaches, epistaxis or other nonspecific symptoms. It can be essential or secondary to another medical condition.
Human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that once acquired, stays in the human body forever. It alters the immune system and can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nowadays, HIV infection can be diagnosed and managed early and efficiently. Therefore AIDS is a rather rare scenario in the developed countries. In case of AIDS progression, individuals suffer from opportunistic infections which can prove lethal.
Human papillomavirus infection is a generic term to describe a spectrum of infections caused by different strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection can vary in presentation from simple warts to genital condylomata or even cervical cancer. Most strains are transmitted through skin contact and body fluids exchange. While some strains are benign, others may lead to malignancies.
Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid results in increased production of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. It can be primary or secondary and presents with signs of accelerated metabolism such as weight loss and tachycardia. Decreased tolerance to heat and irritability are also common. Radioactive iodine administration and medication to control heartbeat are recommended.
Hypothyroidism results from low metabolic activity in the thyroid gland. Hormones produced by the thyroid gland are found in less concentrations or not at all, leading to serious complications. It can be asymptomatic or present with fatigue, weight gain, cold sensitivity, constipation or bradycardia. Some people may experience a goiter which is usually quite noticeable. Levothyroxine is the standard medication used to treat hypothyroidism and reverse its symptoms.
Insomnia is a quantitative sleep disorder that makes it difficult to fall asleep (early-onset insomnia) or stay asleep (late-onset insomnia). Some people may experience both. Insomnia can lead to fatigue and low energy and productivity during the day. Insomnia can be short-term in the context of mild stress or chronic when there is an underlying condition causing it.
Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome is a chronic bladder condition that presents with the subjective feeling of pain or pressure in the bladder. Lower urinary tract symptoms accompany the pain in the absence of urinary tract infection. The exact cause of this pain syndrome is unknown and treatment is individualized according to symptomatology.
Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder of the large intestine, characterised by diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, abdominal pain of cramping nature and excessive gas. It is a common condition that is rarely severe and can be managed efficiently with lifestyle changes and a proper individualised diet. It does not put the patient at high risk for colon cancer.
Kidney stones or nephrolithiasis are made from minerals and salts that are deposited in the kidneys and failed to be eliminated. If they are small enough they can usually pass through without serious complications. Passing kidney stones can be quite painful and is usually referred to as renal colic. Treatment is chosen according to the size and location of the stone.
Lung cancer is a type of cancer that is primarily generated in the lungs. It is the number one cause of cancer deaths among other types of cancer in the US. Although lung cancer is strongly correlated to smoking, not being a smoker does not mean you can’t get lung cancer. Smoking, however, increases the risk significantly. Quitting smoking on time can significantly reduce the risk of developing lung cancer.
Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia. The cardinal sign of Borrelia infection is erythema migrans, an expanding area of skin erythema on the site of the infection. The bacterium is transmitted by a tick and except for rash, it can also cause fever. Treatment consists of oral or intravenous antibiotics.
Macular degeneration is a progressive and degenerative eye condition that is considered the leading cause of blindness. Macula is the retina’s central portion which deteriorates in time, leading to central vision loss. It can be of atrophic or exudative type and generally has no treatment. Several interventions can only slow down the progression, once diagnosed.
Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder characterized by pathological sadness and feelings of hopelessness. It persistently affects the individual’s cognitive functions such as thinking, concentrating or memorizing. It is still unknown what causes major depression but researchers agree on the different brain chemistry found in those suffering from it. Treatment consists in monotherapy or combination of different types of antidepressants.
Melanoma is a malignant condition of the skin. It is the most dangerous and severe form of skin cancer that spreads quickly and easily in other organs. It arises from melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin. It is usually curable if identified in early stages and managed immediately. Superficial spreading melanoma is the most common type.
Menopause refers to the permanent termination of the menstrual cycles and affects every menstruating woman. It may be accompanied by mood changes, irritability, irregular periods or vaginal dryness. In general, body changes are usually essential. Symptoms can be managed with various pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.
A migraine is a condition that causes intense headache of pulsating character and usually on one side of the head. It is often accompanied by other constitutional symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, photosensitivity and noise sensitivity. Migraine is occasionally preceded by an aura characterised by visual or speech disturbances. Others experience a tingling sensation on one side of the face or limbs. It has no cure, but medication can alleviate the pain.
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells which are a type of white blood cells. Some of the most common symptoms and signs are elevated calcium, renal failure, anemia and bone lesions. Opportunistic infections are also typical in those with multiple myeloma. Treatment options include targeted therapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterised by excessive sleepiness. People with narcolepsy might involuntarily fall asleep during the day. They may also experience hallucinations or nightmares, even cataplexy which is the state of muscles while in REM sleep. There is no cure but medication with counseling can improve symptomatology.
Obesity is a complex metabolic disease characterised by significantly increased body weight. The measure of obesity is BMI, according to which grading of obesity is achieved. When BMI is 30 or greater, the diagnosis of obesity is established. Obesity is a reversible condition that if not treated, bears a high cardiovascular risk. The risk to develop diabetes mellitus is also increased. Diet and exercise are the first interventions to consider.
Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that affects large joints, especially those bearing the most body weight, such as the knee and hip joints. Joints that we use most during the day are also commonly affected. The cardinal symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain and stiffness. Swelling of the joints may also be present. Pain relieving medication and physiotherapy are the interventions preferred to manage osteoarthritis.
Osteoporosis is a condition that results in bone loss. Consecutively, the bone becomes weaker and more fragile, being able to break with a random fall or mild somatic stress. Sometimes osteoporosis can make a bone break by itself, a phenomenon called pathological fracture. Post-menopausal women are most likely to be affected. Treatment usually starts with bisphosphonates, some widely used drugs against osteoporosis.
Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the ovaries. It rarely presents early symptoms and may be identified only after it has already metastasized in the pelvic or abdominal area. Symptoms may be nonspecific such as abdominal bloating. Early stages of ovarian cancer are easier to treat with chemotherapy or surgical procedures.
Pancreatic cancer is the abnormal growth of the pancreatic cells, forming a tumor. Some are benign while others are malignant. They are of two types; exocrine and neuroendocrine. Symptoms may include pain in the epigastric area that may radiate in the back. Weight loss and nausea or vomiting may be present as well.
Panic disorder in the ensemble of many and frequent panic attacks. A panic attack is an unexpected reaction of extreme and intense fear. In case of a panic attack, this fear is unjustifiable. The individual experiencing a panic attack may suffer from hyperventilation syndrome, palpitations and sweating. The fear of dying is very characteristic in those having a panic attack. Symptomatology may also be atypical with chest pain or fainting, resembling other urgent conditions.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid cancer, accounting for around 80% of all thyroid cancer cases. They are usually asymptomatic, presenting with a lump in the neck. Cervical metastasis is very common, accounting for almost 50% of all cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Distant metastasis is not common.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive condition that affects our motor nervous system. It usually presents with unilateral hand tremor and masked facies, meaning partial or complete lack of facial expressions. Slurred speech and loss of arm swinging while walking might also be part of the early symptoms of Parkinson's disease. There is no definitive treatment but medication might alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life.
Plantar fasciitis results in stabbing heel pain. The cause of this condition is an inflammation of the thick band of tissue located in the bottom of the foot. Pain usually starts in the morning and gets better with movement. However, it may appear again during the day. It is common in athletes or those constantly wearing improper footwear.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can be caused by various bacteria or viruses. It may cause a productive cough, fever and dyspnea and can range from mild to severe. It can be a life-threatening condition in the extreme ages or the ones with comorbidities. The treatment goal is to cure the infection according to the pathogen responsible for it.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is of hormonal origin and is prevalent among menstruating women. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may experience imbalances regarding their menstrual cycle or increased levels of androgens. The term “polycystic” refers to the numerous fluid-filled cysts formation on the ovaries. There are various pharmacological interventions to control the symptoms and improve quality of life.
In prediabetes, blood glucose levels are high but not high enough to establish the diagnosis of diabetes. It usually goes on undetected, without causing any signs or symptoms. Risk factors such as being overweight or having a family history of diabetes type 2 should put the individual under screening for prediabetes. Lifestyle interventions are usually efficient to fight this condition.
Pregnancy or gestation is the development of one or more offspring inside the uterus of a woman. The earliest and most common sign is missed period. Other symptoms may be nausea, vomiting, headache or simply weight gain. Pregnancy is a condition that requires a lot of attention and prevention of complications. It can be prevented by various contraceptive methods.
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in men. It is a slowly growing cancer that may show no signs or symptoms at all. If advanced, it may present with lower urinary tract symptoms, erectile dysfunction or bone pain in case of metastasis. Younger men require treatment while older ones may require watchful waiting with active surveillance.
Psoriasis is a skin condition in which skin cells mature more quickly than normal. As a result, extra skin is being formed in the form of scales and red patches. These signs are accompanied by pain and itchiness. Psoriasis is a chronic disease with exacerbations and periods of remission. There is no cure for psoriasis but the treatment focuses on slowing down the maturation of the skin cells.
Pulmonary hypertension is hypertension of the lung arteries that leads to narrowing of their lumen. Dyspnea is one of the most prominent symptoms, accompanied by fatigue, chest pressure or even syncope. Signs of right heart failure may also be present as a complication of pulmonary hypertension, which is the case of cor pulmonale.
Schizophrenia is a mental cognitive disorder with psychotic features such as hallucinations, delusions or feelings of xenopathic influence and disorganised thoughts. Schizophrenia can appear with positive or negative symptoms, significantly influencing the disease prognosis. Patients require antipsychotic medication and, potentially, psychotherapy.
Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening complication that may follow after an infection and hematogenous dissemination. It leads to severe hypotension that may prove lethal, in case septic shock manifests. Tachypnea and changes in mental status are some of the most common symptoms. Sepsis requires immediate and aggressive treatment with intravenous antibiotics and supportive interventions.
Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses, the air-filled cavities connecting various structures in the skull. When sinusitis manifests, the lining of the sinuses become inflamed and swell. Facial pain together with signs and symptoms of common cold are usual in sinusitis. Decongestion and potential use of antibiotics will prevent complications and progression to chronic sinusitis.
Social anxiety disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterised by feeling uncomfortable in social situations. Such situations may be public speaking, making a big presentation or even walking in a room full of people. Social anxiety disorder is also known as social phobia and presents with tachycardia, sweating, breathlessness and even feelings of depersonalisation.
Stroke is the result of insufficient blood supply to the brain. It results in neurological disturbances that may affect motion, vision, speech and cognition in general. It is considered a medical emergency and the earliest the treatment the less damage to the brain cells. Hopefully, stroke is a condition well understood and can be effectively prevented.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune and systemic disease, characterized by widespread inflammation. Inflammation results from the body’s accidental attack on its own tissues. Butterfly rash and joint pain, together with light sensitivity are some of the most characteristic symptoms. It cannot be treated but only controlled upon medication.
Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. It is usually asymptomatic and may only present as a lump in the neck, which might mechanically compress other surrounding structures. The prognosis is usually favorable as most thyroid cancers are very curable. It is usually diagnosed with fine needle aspiration biopsy.
Traumatic brain injury is an acquired condition that is classified as mild, moderate or severe. According to the severity of the injury, symptoms may vary from simple and transient to more complex and severe mental, behavioral or physical disturbances. Causes include falls, car accidents or violence. A traumatic brain injury requires immediate emergency care to assure the individual receives enough oxygen, has an adequate blood supply and maintains a normal blood pressure.
Urinary tract infection is an infection that may occur in any part from the urethra to the kidneys. Most commonly, urinary tract infections affect the lower part of the urinary system, causing lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, frequency, nocturia or hesitancy. Treatment consists in increased fluid consumption and antibiotics administration.